American Ginseng

Scientific Name: Panax quinquefolius
Also Known as: American Ginseng, Mandrake Root, Sang, Shang, Five Fingers, Tartar Root, Red Berries, Mans Health, Ren Shen
Native to: Eastern North America
Some Traditional Uses:  Neurasthenia, neuralgia, insomnia, hypotonia. Childbirth; health issues of elderly (Native American). Tonic, aphrodisiac (Appalachian). Digestion, nerves (Eclectics). Dry cough, insomnia, tuberculosis; a Yin tonic (Chinese Medicine).
Current Medicinal Uses and Purposes: Diabetes, ulcer, edema, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, infertility, fatigue, frequent colds/viral illness, recovery from acute illness, hot flashes, increased stamina and well being. Additional uses in Chinese medicine: anemia, insomnia, neurasthenia, gastritis, sexual impotence.
Side Effects and Contraindications: Side effects associated with overdose:  sleeplessness, hypertonia, edema. Contraindicated during acute illness, hemorrhage, and acute coronary thrombosis. Avoid concomitant use of stimulants, coffee, antipsychotic drugs, or hormone treatment (see warning below).
Areas of Further Research: Ginseng has been associated with improvements in cholesterol ratios, blood alcohol clearance, liver toxicity, psychomotor performance, asthma, blood sugar levels, blood pressure regulation, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level. A small recent study showed that ginseng helps with fatigue caused by cancer.
Ginseng can interact with some drugs, so don''t take it without first  consulting with a trained health care practitioner.
Because American ginseng is threatened and endangered, consider using these plants as substitutes: Chinese or Siberian ginseng, astragalus, or ashwagandha.

Listen to the Plant Detective radio show about American ginseng

 

American ginseng, native to North America, was used medicinally by indigenous North Americans for a variety of ailments. In the 1700s, American ginseng was introduced into Asia, where the main Asian medicinal species, Panax ginseng, had long been an important ingredient in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Now, ironically, American ginseng is generally preferred in China, while North Americans often prefer Asian ginseng.

(Photo by Dennis Woodland posted with permission from D. Woodland and Wisconsin State Herbarium)

Ginseng helps bring the body into balance. Whether a system is underfunctioning or overfunctioning, ginseng encourages a return to the middle. It helps the body deal with stress, boosts the immune system, and improves memory, thinking, and energy.Compounds in ginseng called ginsenosides increase protein synthesis and neurotransmitter activity in the brain. Ginseng affects the heart, encouraging it to pump regularly, and increases the amount of oxygen the body uses and how well it uses it. Ginseng helps increase the number of white blood cells and other infection-fighting entities in the body. The plant grows relatively low to the ground, a native mainly of the eastern side of the continent. Liking the dappled light under trees, ginseng puts out a cluster of red berries that ripens by early autumn.Ginseng''s two-pronged root--the part used for medicine--looks like a person, earning ginseng the nickname "man-root." That''s what "ginseng" means in Chinese, and American Indian peoples such as the Penobscot also called the plant by this name.


Today, ginseng is considered a species of concern or endangered or threatened in many American states where it grows. Its trade is regulated and digging is restricted to a few months a year, only plants above a certain age, and by permit only.

Individual American ginseng plants can live up to 90 years. You can tell how old a plant is by counting what are called bud scale scars--bulges along the stem above the root crown (the root crown is where the stem and the root meet). Every year, ginseng plants form buds on the stem below the soil. These stay dormant, but die off at the end of the year, leaving a scar.

Ginseng takes five to six years to mature enough to harvest. It's not considered fully grown until it's twenty years old (kind of like humans!). Older roots are more valuable than younger ones.

                           

Treatise written by Father Lafitau. From University of South Carolina Libraries.

China’s interest in North American ginseng can be traced back to one man, a French Jesuit priest in Canada named Father Joseph Francis Lafitau. Lafitau read about ginseng use in China and wondered if the Chinese would be interested in the North American species, which he’d been introduced to by the Iroquois. They were indeed interested, and trade began in 1716. Fur traders adopted ginseng as a sideline, since they were often in areas where it grew. However, they did not follow sustainable harvesting practices such as the Ojibwa Indians', which harvests plants only after berries turn red, and actually sows them to replenish supplies. Before 1784, the plant was so overharvested for the Chinese trade, it became rare. In 1788, legend says, Daniel Boone and others picked about 12 tons of ginseng for the trade, but the barge carrying it overturned on the Ohio River. Records of the trade from 1862 show that ginseng exports exceeded 300 tons. At this time, the root was once again becoming scarce.

 

(Photo by Terry Jinks, posted with permission from www.earthpower.com)

                     

What are the differences between the two species, Asian ginseng and American ginseng? American ginseng tastes sweeter and is more relaxing, while Asian ginseng stimulates the body.

Siberian ginseng belongs to the ginseng family and shares some characteristics of American and Asian ginseng, but it’s a different species, Eleutherococcus sentiocosus. “Red ginseng” is Chinese ginseng processed (soaked, steamed, and pressed) with other herbs. Another species of North American ginseng is Panax trifolius, a dwarf species.

                     

In China, a good ginseng root is considered equal to health insurance.

                     

Wild ginseng root can bring in hundreds of dollars per pound. It takes many roots to make a pound. Because it's so valuable, ginseng has been overharvested. Large deer populations (yes, they like to eat ginseng!) and habitat destruction by humans have also put strain on wild ginseng populations. Groups working to preserve wild ginseng include the American Herbal Products Assocation, United Plant Savers, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Appalachian Ginseng Foundation

                       

Kristin Johanssen has written a nonfiction book that reads like a mystery and looks in-depth into the world of the modern American ginseng trade. Ginseng Dreams: The Secret World of America's Most Valuable Plant was published by the University Press of Kentucky in 2006.

 


American Ginseng References for The Plant Detective Radio Show

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Chuang, Wu-Chang, et al. "A Comparative Study on Commercial Samples of Ginseng Radix." Planta Medica 1995; 61:459-465 (via HerbClip, "Analysis of Commercial Ginseng Roots," Mar 13, 1997. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council).

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Duke, J. A. 1986. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

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Farnsworth, Norman R., and John P. Bederka, Jr. "Ginseng: Fantasy, Fiction, or Fact?" Tile and Till June 1973; 59 (2):30-32.

Foster, Steven. American Ginseng: Panax quinquefolius. Monograph, Botanical Series no. 308. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council, 1991.

Foster, Steven. Asian Ginseng: Panax Ginseng. Monograph, Botanical Series no. 303. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council, 1991.

Foster, S. and V. E. Tyler. 1999. Tyler’s Honest Herbal:  A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 4th edition. Haworth Herbal Press, Inc., New York.

Fryer, Lee. "The Wisconsin Ginseng Project." Acres, USA June 1995; 8 (via HerbClip, "The Wisconsin Ginseng Crop Improvement Program," Aug 8, 1995. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council).

Gladstar, Rosemary, and Pamela Hirsch, eds. 2000. Planting the Future: Saving Our Medicinal Herbs. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

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LaValle, Jim. "Ginseng: Ancient Chinese Cure-all." For the Pharmacist Feb 1997:42.

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Li, Thomas S. C., and D. Harries. "Medicinal Values of Ginseng." Herb, Spice and Medicinal Plant Digest (Laboratories for Natural Products, Medicinal, and Aromatic Plants, U Mass, Amherst, MA) Fall 1996; 14 (3):1-5.

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Robbers, J. E., M. K. Speedie, V. E. Tyler. 1996. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Sun, XB, et al. "Purification of Immune Complexes Clearance Enhancing Polysaccharide from the Leaves of Panax Ginseng, and its Biological Activities." Phytomedicine 1994; 1:256-231 (via HerbClip, "Immune-enhancing Property of Polysaccharides from Ginseng Leaves," Dec 29, 1995. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council).

Tyler, Varro. "Ginseng: King of Zing?" Prevention Aug 1997:69-70, 72.

Walters, Charles. "Restoring Ginseng's Vital Force." Acres, USA June 1995; 1ff (via HerbClip, "The Wisconsin Ginseng Crop Improvement Program," Aug 8, 1995. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council).

Wildflower Conservancy. American Ginseng Facts. http://www.wildflowerconservancy.org/project2.htm , Sept. 17, 2006.

Wolfe, Tom. "An Ecological Success Story: The Wisconsin Ginseng Project." Pathways Summer 1995; 35ff (via HerbClip, "The Wisconsin Ginseng Crop Improvement Program," Aug 8, 1995. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council).

World Health Organization Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, vol. 1. 1999. Geneva: World Health Organization.