You can categorize flowering plants in two separate parts: dicots and monocots. If you look at the leaves, flowers, and roots of the plants, you can tell the plant belongs to which category.
The biologists have derived the very name monocots and dicots from the cotyledons.
It is nothing but seed leaves that are present in embryonic seedlings.
Now you have probably understood that monocot refers to one cotyledon. And the plants having two cotyledons fall under the category of dicots.
Almost 22% of plants blossom and belong to the category of monocot. About 75% of flowering plants have two cotyledons in the seedling. Since roses have a couple of cotyledons, it is a dicot.
You can identify it by looking closely at the plant. Like any other dicots, roses also have net-like veins present in their leaves and include several petals that are a multiple of 4 or 5. It is another significant feature of a dicot.
Are roses monocots or dicots?
Roses are the perfect dicots with all the features present in them. It belongs to the family called Rosaceae. Other members of this family are plums, cherries, and apples.
These all fall under the dicot section. Although roses include all the characteristics a dicot should have, it holds some other distinctive features that make the plant a special dicot.
If you want to tell whether the plant is dicot or monocot at just one glance, look at the leaves. Foliage with netted veins is the simplest way to identify a dicot.
Rose leaves hold this characteristic. Besides this, rose seedlings have two cotyledons present in them like all the dicots. You can easily distinguish a dicot by counting the number of petals the flower has, usually multiples of 4 or 5.
We know it is impossible to count rose petals because it seems infinite. But with patience, you will find it can have 32 or 250 petals. A rose will never grow flowers with 18 petals.
Next time whenever you see a rose plant, notice attentively to the stem part. Dicot plant stems differ from a monocot, and if you cut them, you will see the vein structure in them. There is also a ring-like pattern inwards and outside of it.
The roots of any dicot are taproots. You will find no difference with the roses, which have a taproot system that grows thicker and strong with time.
Unlike fibrous roots, it goes deeper into the soil instead of spreading around the upper part. The dicot root system has one thick, sturdy root called the taproot, which helps to grow smaller branches from it.
What are the differences between Monocots and Dicots?
Monocots and dicots have specific distinct features to distinguish them from one another. Botanists classify them by the number of cotyledons their seedlings hold.
Still, you can not apply this method to tell whether the plant is monocot or dicot if it is a grown-up one.
Even if you are a newbie gardener, try to look at a seedling. You might not identify the seed leaves. So here we have shared some easy steps to differentiate monocot from dicot, which are as below.
1. Number of cotyledons
As we have said earlier, this is the primary difference between monocots and dicots. Look into a seedling and count how many cotyledons it has. If you find one, then the plant is a monocot. If it is over one but not exceeding two, you can surely tell it is a dicot.
2. Closely investigate the leaves.
You will notice some plants’ leaves have veins with branches. These plants are dicots where you will see various vein arrangements in the leaves.
- Pinnate arrangement
In this arrangement, the middle vein of the leaf branches out smaller veins on either side of the leaf. This arrangement makes the leaf look like a feather.
- Palmate arrangement
In this arrangement, the leaf gets a palm-like resemblance. This vein arrangement is present only in dicot, where the veins come out from a single vein and take the form of fingers of a hand.
Besides, the leaves of monocots have veins with a grass-like arrangement. Because the veins are parallel to each other and look like a grass leaf, it does not mean every monocot has grass-like leaves.
Some monocots have leaves that resemble an arrowhead and have sections that dangle downwards and look like the palmate leaves of dicots.
But if you survey, you will notice all the veins come out from the base of the leaves and stay parallel to each other. Veins do not create a web-like shape over the leaves of monocots.
3. The charming flower of your plant can tell you the type.
If you have a plant that blooms, it is easier to distinguish whether it is monocot or dicot. Even an inexperienced one can do this only by counting the number of petals a flower has.
If you notice a flowering plant has floral parts in multiples of three, then the plant is a monocot. Dicot has flowers with many petals that are multiples of four or five.
4. Dig a little to know more
Monocots and dicot plants have unique structures throughout their body. Even if you dig into the soil, you would see the contrasting roots they have. Dicots have a taproot system, where one can notice web-like root systems with monocots.
The roots arrangement in dicots comprises one robust thick root heading downwards from below the stem. Branch roots come out from this taproot which is nothing but the primary radicle created from the seed.
If you notice a plant has web-like roots that do not go deep in the soil, the plant is a monocot. Monocots have fibrous roots with network arrangement and emerge from the stem of a monocot.
5. Check the strength of the stem.
Most dicots are woody trees, except pine, cedar, cypress, and other gymnosperms.
The actively thriving cells in their stem generate the annual growth rings in the bark.
But monocots are not wood-like strong because of the cambium layer absence in them. You will find no annual growth rings present in a monocot’s trunk.
Are lilies monocots or dicots?
Lilies hold all the characteristics of monocots. 97% of plants belong to either monocots or dicots. Let us take a look at the features below that make lilies a monocot plant.
- Leaf vein
The leaves of a lily plant have parallel vein arrangements like a monocot. You can even find arrowhead leaves in some lily plants. Although they resemble palm-like structures found in dicot, the veins spread parallel over the leaves.
- Florid structure
If you look closely at the charming lilies, you will notice the number of petals or pistils is always multiple if 3.
- Fibrous root network
A common attribute every monocot has is the hairy root system. You can find it in a lily too. The roots of a lily plant like to stay at the upper surface of the soil like any monocot.
- Only one primary leaf
Monocotyledon and dicotyledon are classified based on the number of seed leaves. Since lily seed germinates one seed leaf or cotyledon, it falls under the monocot category.
Are daisies monocots or dicots?
Daisies are dicots because of the leaf vein structure, taproot system, and flowering parts numbers. It is now time to check in detail why daisies are a dicot plant.
- Number of cotyledons
Since a daisy seedling grows two seed leaves or cotyledons after germination, it is considered a dicot. The main difference between monocot and dicot is the number of cotyledons present in the seed.
- Vein structure
The beautiful feather-like leaves in the daisy plant enhance the charm of the simple white flower even more. If you look closely at the leaves, you will find the veins are net-like, and the single vein branches off many small veins. Anyone can tell apart a dicot just seeing this.
Daisy flowers are so pleasant to look at with their milky-white petals. Even just looking at it can be so fascinating. And if you count the petals, you would always come out with multiples of 4 or 5.
Like other dicots, daisy plants have a taproot system with one spine root. Small branch roots that come out from the radicle.
Are orchids monocots or dicots?
Orchids are monocots because the seedlings have a single cotyledon present in them. Because of the gorgeous flowers, this plant is always in demand.
The charming orchid flower has petals or pistils in multiples of 3 like every monocot.
Orchid leaves are dark green with a glossy texture, and the vein arrangement on the leaves is parallel. Like any other monocots, orchids have a stringy root system that forms a spider-web shape.
Now you have probably understood how to tell the difference between monocots and dicots. While roses and daisies are dicots, orchids and lilies belong to the monocot family.
Also, you can see the distinguishing characteristics we have stated in the article with bare eyes. If you investigate through a microscope, you will find more.